Testing random numbers in Python using mocks
If there is an algorithm that uses random numbers then it is probably not possible to write a test as the results will be based on the random number. Even in cases when that is not an issue, we usually want to make our test repeatable.
In some cases the best solution is to mock the random number generation and provide pre-defined fake random to the application.
This is what we are going to demonstrate here.
Application using random
This is a very simple "application" that generates two random numbers and adds them together. I know it is very simple and stupid, but it is better to keep it that way as the application itself is not the interesting part.
import random def main(): # ... x = random.randrange(100) # ... y = random.randrange(100) # ... z = x + y return z if __name__ == '__main__': print(main())
The interseting is the test. Here we prepare a list of random numbers we would like to be retturned by the randrange function and then we override the randrange function of the random object inside the app by an anonymous lambda-function that will return the values one-by-one.
Once we have that setup we can call the app.main() and check if it returns the expecte value, which is 42 in this case.
import app def test_app(): random_numbers = [19, 23] app.random.randrange = lambda n : random_numbers.pop(0) assert app.main() == 42
That's it. Nothing fancy. We can prepare the random number we would like to see and then let the application think that it uses the real random generator.