In getting started with AngularJS we saw how simple expressions work, and then we created our first binding. This time we look at two simple examples using AngularJS modules and controllers.

Hello World Controller


<script src="angular.min.js"></script>
<script src="hello_world_controller.js"></script>
<div ng-app="HelloWorldApp">
    <div ng-controller="HelloWorldController">

After loading angular.js we include some more JavaScript code. We can do that embedded in the HTML file using a pair of script tags or, as usually is recommended and as we did it in this examples, we can put that code in an external JavaScript file. The only requirement is that we load that file after we load angular.js.

The JavaScript code looks like this:


angular.module('HelloWorldApp', [])
   .controller('HelloWorldController', function($scope) {
       $scope.greeting = "Hello World";

First we create an angular.module and attached to it we create a controller. The module gets two parameters: The first is the name we select for this module. It can be any string, but as this is the name of the Angular Application it might be a good idea to call it some "App".

We are going to use this name in our HTML file as the value of the ng-app attribute. (Earlier we did not provide a name to this attribute and thus it used the default application.)

The second parameter of the module is a list of dependencies. For now we leave that empty.

The controller itself also has two parameters. The first one is its name. Usually it is some word ending with "Controller". The second parameter is a function that implements the controller. It will be executed once when the controller is loaded. The environment is passed in the $scope variable. The models and the "variables" in the Angular expressions we used earlier are attributes of this object. Hence as we create a new attribute called $scope.greeting, and assign a value to it, we'll be able to access this value from our HTML file.

In order for Angular to connect our module and controller we need to create an HTML element with an ng-app attribute that equals to the name of the module, and inside that HTML element we need to add another HTML element with an attribute called ng-controller that equals to the name of our controller.

These two mark the area in which the $scope is relevant.

This was a fairly simple example with a hard-coded value assigned to an attribute and used in an expression.

Hello user Conroller

Let's see a slightly more complex example in which we handle input from the user and process that input in the controller. The processing will be very simple, just concatenating with a fixed string.


angular.module('HelloUserApp', [])
      .controller('HelloUserController', function($scope) {
          $scope.NameChange = function () {
              $scope.greeting = "Hello " + $;

In this case, the attribute NameChange we add to the $scope is a function and that function will create the $scope.greeting attribute using the value from the $ attribute.

In the HTML


<script src="angular.min.js"></script>
<script src="hello_user_controller.js"></script>
<div ng-app="HelloUserApp">
    <div ng-controller="HelloUserController">
        <input ng-model="name" ng-keyup="NameChange()">

The ng-model="name" connects the input element to the $

The ng-keyup="NameChange()" connects the keyup event of the HTML page to the function defined as $scope.NameChange which means the function will be called every time the content of the input box has changed.

The two expression in the HTML code {{name}} and {{greeting}} will display the content of $ and $scope.greeting respectively.

The result is that as we type "Foo" in the input box, our page will display "Hello Foo" in h1 tags and Foo in h2 tags.